While your body needs cholesterol in a small quantity, having high cholesterol can increase your risk of heart disease. Here’s what you need to know.
Cholesterol is a waxy substance that’s found in the fats in your blood. Although your body needs cholesterol to continue building healthy cells, having high cholesterol can increase your risk of heart disease. Here’s how to diagnose and manage your high cholesterol.
When you have high cholesterol, you develop fatty deposits in your blood vessels. These fatty deposits make it difficult for enough blood to flow through your arteries and they can get clogged. Your heart may not get as much oxygen-rich blood as it needs, which increases the risk of a heart attack. In addition, decreased blood flow to your brain can cause a stroke. Cholesterol can lead to a plethora of health conditions that can prove fatal.
High cholesterol can be inherited, but more often that not, it’s due to unhealthy lifestyle choices. A healthy diet, regular exercise and medication, if the condition is severe enough, can go a long way toward reducing high cholesterol and restoring your health.
Cholesterol is carried through your blood, attached to proteins. This combination of proteins and cholesterol is called a lipoprotein. You may have heard of different types of cholesterol, based on what type of cholesterol the lipoprotein carries. They are:
- Low-density lipoprotein (LDL). LDL, or “bad,” cholesterol transports cholesterol particles throughout your body. LDL cholesterol builds up in the walls of your arteries, making them hard and narrow.
- High-density lipoprotein (HDL). HDL, or “good,” cholesterol picks up excess cholesterol and takes it back to your liver.
Factors that may increase your risk of high cholesterol include:
- Poor diet. Eating saturated fat, found in animal products, and trans fats, found in some commercially baked cookies and crackers, can raise your cholesterol level. Foods that are high in cholesterol, such as red meat and full-fat dairy products, will also increase your total cholesterol.
- Obesity. Having a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater puts you at risk of high cholesterol.
- Large waist circumference. Your risk increases if you are a man with a waist circumference of at least 40 inches (102 centimeters) or a woman with a waist circumference of at least 35 inches (89 centimeters).
- Lack of exercise. Exercise helps boost your body’s HDL, or “good,” cholesterol while increasing the size of the particles that make up your LDL, or “bad,” cholesterol, which makes it less harmful.
- Smoking. Cigarette smoking damages the walls of your blood vessels, making them likely to accumulate fatty deposits. Smoking may also lower your level of HDL, or “good,” cholesterol.
- Diabetes. High blood sugar contributes to higher LDL cholesterol and lower HDL cholesterol. High blood sugar also damages the lining of your arteries.
Problems with high cholesterol
High cholesterol can cause a dangerous accumulation of cholesterol and other fatty deposits on the walls of your arteries. These deposits can reduce blood flow through your arteries, which can cause complications, like:
- Chest pain. If the arteries that supply your heart with blood (coronary arteries) are affected, you may have chest pain (angina) and other symptoms of coronary artery disease.
- Heart attack. If plaques tear or rupture, a blood clot may form at the plaque-rupture site — blocking the flow of blood or breaking free and plugging an artery downstream. If blood flow to part of your heart stops, you’ll have a heart attack.
- Stroke. Similar to a heart attack, if blood flow to part of your brain is blocked by a blood clot, a stroke occurs.
How to prevent/ manage high cholesterol
The same heart-healthy lifestyle changes that can lower your cholesterol can help prevent you from having high cholesterol in the first place. To help prevent high cholesterol, you can:
- Eat a low-salt diet that includes many fruits, vegetables and whole grains
- Limit the amount of animal fats and use good fats in moderation
- Lose extra pounds and maintain a healthy weight
- Quit smoking
- Exercise on most days of the week for at least 30 minutes
- Drink alcohol in moderation, if at all